Purple-edged copper Lycaena hippothoe, foto: Pekka Malinen

ICE Constitution

COUNCIL FOR INTERNATIONAL CONGRESSES OF ENTOMOLOGY CONSTITUTION

Adopted August 1984; revised August 2000

ARTICLE I NAME

Section I. The name of this organisation is the Council for International Congresses of Entomology (CICE). It supersedes the former Permanent Committee for International Congresses of Entomology.

ARTICLE II PURPOSE

Section I. The purpose of the Council is to provide continuity and direction for the International Congresses of Entomology, and to serve as the Entomology Section of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS). It may also encourage the holding of smaller inter-Congress meetings. Particular functions of the Council are set forth in Article VIII.

ARTICLE III MEMBERSHIP

Section I. The Council shall consist of not more than twenty-three (23) members, who shall represent as wide a field as possible both geographically and by entomological discipline. Membership of the Council shall be limited to distinguished entomologists who are interested in the welfare and future of the International Congresses of Entomology.

Section 2. Members shall be elected to the Council by procedures set forth in Article VII. Terms of members who are elected in the interval between Congresses shall begin upon election and end at the close of the final Plenary Session of the second Congress following. Terms of members elected during a Congress shall begin with the close of the Final Plenary Session of that Congress and end at the close of the Final Plenary Session of the second Congress following. A member shall not be elected to more than two consecutive terms.

Section 3. Honorary Members of the International Congresses may not serve on the Council. The Chairman of Council may invite Honorary Members to attend Council meetings, but without the option of voting. Any member of the Council who is appointed to Honorary Membership shall be deemed to have resigned from the Council, effective upon ratification of the appointment.

ARTICLE IV OFFICERS

Section I. The officers of the Council shall be a Chairman, a Deputy Chairman, and a Secretary/Treasurer. They shall be elected by the Council by procedures set forth in Section 2 of this Article, and shall serve from the close of the Final Plenary Session of the Congress at which they are elected until the close of the Final Plenary Session of the next Congress. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman shall not serve for more than two consecutive Congresses. Notwithstanding other Articles in this Constitution, the Chairman at the end of his/her term will remain an ordinary member of Council until the end of the following Congress. The Secretary/Treasurer shall not serve for more than three consecutive Congresses.

Section 2. At the first business session of the Council at a Congress, the Chairman shall call for nominations for the offices of the Council, indicating in each case whether a current office holder remains eligible and willing to continue. Any member of the Council may nominate a candidate for each position. To be valid each nomination must be seconded by another member of the Council. At the close of nominations, the Chairman shall declare any unopposed candidate elected, and shall set the time, before the Final Plenary Session of the Congress, at which the election to each contested position will take place. At the time set by the Chairman, members of the Council in attendance at the Congress shall vote for the candidates by secret ballot. A majority of votes cast shall be required for election. If no candidate for a particular contested office receives a majority of votes cast on the first ballot, the members shall immediately cast a second ballot to choose between the two candidates who received the greatest numbers of votes for that office on the first ballot. A tie for second place on the first ballot shall be broken by lot drawn by the Chairman so that the second ballot shall contain only two names.

Section 3. If a vacancy occurs in the office of Chairman in the interval between Congresses, the Deputy Chairman shall become Chairman for the remainder of the term. If a vacancy occurs in the office of Deputy Chairman or the office of Secretary/Treasurer, the vacancy shall be filled by appointment by the Chairman for the remainder of the term. In the event that a person is elevated from the office of Deputy Chairman to the office of Chairman, or is appointed to fill a vacancy in the office of Deputy Chairman or Secretary/Treasurer, the partial term thus served shall not limit eligibility of the person to serve for the consecutive full terms specified in Section I of the Article.

Section 4. The Chairman shall preside at all sessions of the Council. The Chairman shall report to the Opening and Final Plenary Sessions of the Congress on such matters as the welfare of Entomology and the Congresses, and the activities of the Council including changes in its membership and officers. The Chairman shall be responsible for the affairs of the Council in the interim between Congresses, subject to the advice and consent of the Council on matters of policy. The Chairman shall solicit invitations for sponsorship of the next Congress, and shall perform other duties specified in this Constitution. The Chairman should inform Council members periodically of the affairs of the Council.

Section 5. The Deputy Chairman shall serve as Chairman in the absence of the Chairman, and shall performsuch other duties as may be delegated by the Chairman.

Section 6. The Secretary/Treasurer shall keep the records and minutes of the Council, and shall present an accounting of the finances of the Council at the first session of the Council at each Congress. In consultation with the Chairman, the Secretary/Treasurer shall prepare and distribute a tentative agenda for the meetings of the Council at least six months before the time of the next Congress. The Secretary/Treasurer shall maintain and distribute to the Council annually, if there are any changes, a roster of Council members and Honorary Members of the International Congresses of Entomology, together with their current addresses and their birthdates. The Secretary/Treasurer shall perform other duties specified in this Constitution and as may be delegated by the Chairman. The Chairman may request the Secretary/Treasurer to give a portion of the account of the affairs of the Council at the Final Plenary Session of a Congress, and may delegate duties to the Secretary/Treasurer in connection with the affairs of the Council in the interval between Congresses.

ARTICLE V COUNCIL MEETINGS AND INTERIM TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS

Section I. The Council shall hold at least two business sessions during each Congress.

Section 2. A majority of the Council members attending a Congress shall constitute a quorum. Except as provided otherwise in this Constitution, a majority of members voting shall be required to pass any motion. Voting by proxy shall not be permitted.

Section 3. In the interval between Congresses, the Council shall normally conduct its business by postal/email ballot in the following manner: the Secretary/Treasurer, at the direction of the Chairman, shall post/send to the last known postal/email address of each member of the Council a ballot paper, or as an attached electronic document, for decision on any matter requiring a vote of the Council. It will be the continuing responsibility of each council member to provide the Secreatary/Treasurer with a current postal and email address. If no reply is received from a member within one month, the Secretary/Treasurer shall post/send a second copy of the letter/email and attachments, if any, to the member. If no reply is received within one month after the second copy is posted/sent, the member shall be deemed to have abstained from voting. Except as provided otherwise a majority of the members voting is required to pass any postal/email ballot motion. Failure to respond on three consecutive occasions to letters/emails, together with their reminders, sent by either the Secretary/Treasurer or Chairman, will be taken to signify that such a member wishes to tender his/her resignation.

ARTICLE VI FINANCES OF THE COUNCIL

Section I. Funds of the Council shall be administered by the Secretary/Treasurer as directed by the Council, but shall be deposited with a body such as a national society, museum, or institution, which is approved by the Council and has its accounts subjected annually or more often to professional audit. Funds for the Council may be obtained from such sources as grants, levy collected by the Organising Committee for the Congresses (see Article IX Section S), surplus monies from individual Congresses, and sale of Congress Proceedings donated to the Council.

Section 2. The expenses of the Chairman and the Secretary/Treasurer may be paid from Council funds to enable these officers to attend International Congresses of Entomology and General Assemblies of the International Union of Biological Sciences provided that support for travel to Congresses shall take precedence over support for travel to Assemblies if funds are limited. Expenses of other members of the Council, except for those of the Deputy Chairman when acting instead of the Chairman, shall not be paid from Council funds.

ARTICLE VII NOMINATIONS AND ELECTION TO FILL VACANCIES ON THE COUNCIL

Section I. Vacancies. A vacancy on the Council shall occur when a member’s term expires, or when a member has resigned, or died. Vacancies may be filled either by the Council at a Congress or by postal/email ballot.

Section 2. Nominations. Any two members of the Council may nominate a candidate for any vacancy that exists on Council. Each nomination whether for postal/email ballot or for elections during a Congress shall be conveyed to the Secretary/Treasurer in writing, and shall be accompanied by a curriculum vitae including the candidate’s birthdate and qualifications for service on the Council.

Section 3. Postal/Email ballots. Nominators may request a postal/email ballot for nominations received by the Secretary/Treasurer more than six (6) months before the commencement of a Congress. In general, only one ballot for Council membership shall be held between Council meetings and this will be arranged about thirty (30) months after a Congress. The Secretary/Treasurer shall distribute to members of the Council a ballot paper indicating the number of vacancies and listing the names of the candidates, together with their curriculum vitae. Members of the Council shall indicate as first priority either their wish to proceed with theelection or their wish to defer decision until the next Congress. In any case they should indicate their choice of the candidates or they should indicate that they do not wish to cast any or all of their votes in favour of any or all of the candidates. Such negative votes will be taken into account when determining whether a candidate has received a majority vote.

Each member shall cast only one vote for any candidate, but will have as many votes to cast as there are vacancies for which candidates have been nominated. A majority of the votes cast shall be required for election but if five (S) members vote for deferment to the next Congress this will take precedence over other decisions.

When not all positions are filled by a majority vote the nominators of unsuccessful candidates may request a further postal/email ballot after an interval of six months.

Section 4. Elections during a Congress. At the first business session of the Council during each Congress, the Chairman shall call for nominations to fill vacancies on Council, and shall announce which retiring members are eligible for re-election.

Nominations to fill potential vacancies resulting from proposals to appoint Council members to Honorary Membership at the Congress may be made at this time, even if appointment and/or ratification has not yet taken place. (See Article X).

The Secretary/Treasurer shall distribute to all Council members attending a Congress the details of each nominee as specified in Article VII Section 2. These details shall be distributed not later than the day before a subsequent business session of the Council at the Congress. The Secretary/Treasurer shall prepare a ballot paper listing the names and birthdates of the candidates.

Members of the Council in attendance at the Congress shall cast their votes for each vacancy taken one at a time at the subsequent business session of the Council at the Congress. A majority of the votes cast for each vacancy shall be required for election. If no candidate for a position receives a majority of votes cast on the first ballot, the members shall immediately cast a second ballot to choose between the two candidates who received the greatest number of votes for the position on the first ballot. A tie for second place on the first ballot shall be broken by lot drawn by the Chairman so that the second ballot shall contain only two names.

An election to fill a vacancy expected to result from ratification of the appointment of a Council member to Honorary Membership shall be void if the appointment is not ratified.

ARTICLE VIII FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNCIL

Section I. The Council shall receive and consider invitations for the next Congress. It shall recommend to the Final Plenary Session of each Congress the place and time of the next Congress.

Place means the country in which the Congress will be held. Selection of a country is dependent on receipt of an invitation from the appropriate national academy or other body representing entomologists of that country. The location within a country is chosen by the sponsoring body.

Time means the year in which the Congress will be held. Congresses are traditionally held at intervals of four years, but the interval between one Congress and the next may be varied on recommendation by the Council and approval by a Congress at its Final Plenary Session. The exact dates of a Congress are set by the sponsoring body.

Section 2. The Council shall provide advice to the body sponsoring a Congress, on structure, length and scope, and on other matters pursuant to Article IX.

Section 3. The Council shall nominate one member of Council to serve on the Organizing Committee of the Congress. This member shall serve as a full member of the Congress Organizing Committee.

Section 4. The Council shall appoint Honorary Members of the International Congresses, pursuant to Article X.

Section 5. The Council shall receive and act on proposed resolutions at the Congresses, pursuant to Article XI.

Section 6. The Council shall be the Entomology Section of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS). The Chairman of the Council and the Secretary/Treasurer of the Council shall serve the Section as President and Secretary, respectively.

Section 7. The Council shall undertake such other duties, including duties laid upon it by a Congress, as may be necessary to implement this Constitution. The Council shall attend to any business arising from the affairs of past or future Congresses provided that the Council shall not be required to assume responsibility for the debts of the sponsoring body of any Congress.

ARTICLE IX RELATIONSHIPS WITH SPONSORING BODIES

Section I. The Council shall provide advice as needed to any body or bodies sponsoring each Congress, including advice on the exact dates and location of the Congress, financing of the Congress, and election of the President of the Congress; however, except as specified otherwise herein, each Congress shall remain responsible for its affairs (see also Article VIII, Section 3).

Section 2. Subject to concurrence by the Council in any proposed major changes in the scope and number of Sections at a Congress, each Congress is responsible for division of the Scientific Program into Sections and for the content of its program.

Section 3. The President and Secretary of each Congress shall be invited to attend and take part in discussion at meetings of the Council during a Congress, but shall not thereby become voting members of the Council.

Section 4. It has become customary for each Congress to present the Council with at least 2S copies of the Proceedings of the Congress at no charge, to help defray the expenses of the Council.

Section 5. During its deliberations on the time and place for the next Congress, Council will set a levy to be included in the registration fee for each participant attending the next Congress. The size of the levy will be discussed and settled with each bidder before the successful bid is announced during the Final Plenary Session. The levy will be collected by the Organising Committee of the next Congress and paid to the Secretary/Treasurer by the Treasurer of the Congress following the Congress.

Section 6. The Council shall make a current copy of the Constitution available to the Secretary of each Congress for publication in a principal announcement of that Congress.

ARTICLE X APPOINTMENT OF HONORARY MEMBERS OF THE CONGRESSES

Section I. Honorary Members of the International Congresses of Entomology (ICE) shall be appointed for life by the Council. Each appointment shall be announced at, and thereby ratified, by the next Plenary Session convened after the Honorary Member is appointed.

Section 2. Honorary Members shall be appointed from among entomologists who have made outstanding contributions to entomological knowledge, who have influenced entomology substantially both within and outside their own countries or regions, and who have made important contributions to the International Congresses of Entomology.

Section 3. Honorary Membership appointments shall be so arranged that, as of the date of ratification, there shall be not more than seven (7) Honorary Members below the age of seventy-five (75) years.

Section 4. Honorary members, regardless of their age, shall be exempt from payment of registration fees for International Congresses. The Congress may, at its discretion, invite any or all Honorary Members to attend a Congress at the expense of the Congress.

Section 5. At the first business session of the Council at a Congress, the Chairman shall call for nominations of candidates for Honorary Membership. In so doing, the Chairman shall indicate the number of Honorary Memberships that will be available to persons below the age of seventy-five (75) as of the date of ratification, and shall designate a future business session of the Council at which the nominations will be considered. Any two members of the Council may nominate a candidate or candidates. Each nomination shall be conveyed to the Secretary/Treasurer in writing, and shall be accompanied by a statement of the candidate’s birthdate and qualifications for Honorary Membership. This information shall be distributed to Council members attending the Congress not later than the day before the business session of the Council designated for their consideration.

The Secretary/Treasurer shall prepare a ballot paper listing the names and birthdates of the candidates. The ballot paper shall be distributed to members of the Council at the business session designated by the Chairman. An affirmative vote of three-quarters of the members in attendance at the Congress shall be required for appointment to Honorary Membership. If the required majority is not attained to fill available vacancies a special meeting at which a further vote is taken may be called on the instruction of the Chairman.

ARTICLE XI RESOLUTIONS

Section I. The Council shall consider and recommend action by a Congress on properly presented resolutions, whether such proposals are initiated within the Council, or adopted by a Section of the Congress, or made by any group of twenty or more persons in attendance at the Congress.

Resolutions must be relevant to Entomology, or to the business of the Congress, and shall not be political in nature. An individual who wishes a Section to adopt a proposed resolution should give notice of intent to the organisers of the Section in sufficient time (preferably before the Sectional program is drawn up) to enable the Section to arrange for the proposed resolution to be discussed during a meeting of the Section.

Section 2. The Secretary/Treasurer will receive proposed resolutions for consideration by the Council up to forty-eight (48) hours after the Plenary Opening Session of the Congress, and shall cause the proposal submitted to be announced to the Congress. Proposed resolutions must be announced to the Congress by posting or through other media, such as a daily news bulletin.

Section 3. Any comments to resolutions announced must be submitted in writing to the Secretary/Treasurer no later than fourty-eight (48) hours before the start of the Final Plenary Session of the Congress.

Section 4. The Secretary/Treasurer shall announce the recommendations of the Council on each proposed resolution at the Final Plenary Session of the Congress.

Section 5. A resolution will be deemed adopted if a majority of participants attending the Final Plenary Session indicate their support by a show of hands. The Council shall take subsequent action required by resolutions of a Congress, insofar as such action is necessary and is consistent with this Constitution.

ARTICLE XII AMENDMENTS

Section I. Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed by any two members of the Council, and shall be adopted if two-thirds of the Council members casting votes in favour thereof at a business session of the Council at a Congress, or by postal/email ballot in the interim between Congresses.

Section 2. An amendment shall become effective upon adoption, unless a later time is specified in the amendment itself.